Chapter 1 – What is Normalization?

Normalization is the process to normalize (split) a large relation (entity/table) into smaller relations (entities/tables)
The Normalization start with a UNF (UnNormalization Form) form. Then, UNF will be processed into 1NF 2NF 3NF BCNF and ERD

1.1NF: First Normalization Form, in this phrase, we will:
-Detect the Primary Key (PK) for the large relation
-Define Dependencies (one/more attributes depend on other one/more attributes)
Example:
studentid –> (studentname, dob)
(semesterid, courseid) –> coursefee
-Functional Dependency (FD): this is the dependency of non-key attributes to key attributes
+If non-key attributes depend on the whole key PK(attr1, attr2), this is fully functional dependency
+If non-key attributes depend on partial key attr1 of PK(attr1, attr2), this is partial functional dependency
-Transitive Dependency (TD): this is the dependency of non-key attributes to non-key attributes

2.2NF:
-If the relation still have partial functional dependency –> it is NOT in 2NF
-Split partial functional dependency out of big relation to form new relations
-Keep the fully functional dependency in big realation

3.3NF:
-If the relation still have transitive functional dependency –> it is NOT in 3NF
-Split transitive dependency out of big relation to form new relations

4.BCNF
-At this phrase, we will have:
+Relations as a result of spiting of partial functional dependency
+Relations as a result of spiting of transitive dependency
+Relations of fully functional dependency

5.ERD / Logical ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram)
-End of BCNF, we will have Entities
-We need to define PK for each Entity
-Next, we will make relationship for these entities
-In ERD, we will define the relation 1:M or 1:1 or M:N

6. EERD / Relational ERD
-For this stage, we need to define the PK and FK (Foreign Key) for each entities
-Refine the M:N relation to 1:M or M:1
-Then, in the diagram, we need to state clearly which PK will map to FK to form a relationship

Example: A Complete Step by Step to Normalize an UNF

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